There’s a transparent ache level when it comes to drug discovery: Depending on which research you cite, creating an accredited drug prices anyplace from $985 million to $2.6 billion. And R&D returns have rebounded to solely about 2.5% in 2020, up from a low of 1.6% in 2019. Not to point out the truth that medicine that fail in medical trials don’t really assist individuals who want new therapies.
With an issue like that, there’s little shock that we’ve seen numerous startups coming into the drug growth house, every trying to carve out their very own area of interest. That may be AI-based drug discovery, advanced proteomics (the research of proteins and their interactions) or, for one newly launched firm, layers upon layers of organic information.
On Thursday, Pepper Bio, a seed-stage firm primarily based in Boston, emerged from stealth. Pepper Bio has been constructing a “computational platform,” to use co-founder and chief scientific officer Samantha Dale Strasser’s phrases, that the corporate believes can help in drug discovery.
Pepper Bio has been working with a number of layers of organic information. That contains genetic information, proteomics, transcriptomics (the research of RNAs, coding or non-coding, that exist in a cell) and phosphoproteomics — which is when a phosphate group is added to a protein and thereby adjustments its perform.
To break that down additional: Think of the genetics piece as a roadmap for the physique’s proteins. Think of proteomics because the research of how these roads (proteins) work together and intersect with each other. Phosphoproteomics is the research of phosphorylation of proteins — basically, a course of by which the physique provides a chemical tag to proteins and alters their perform. Think of these as vehicles on the street. Transcriptomics is simply one other layer of site visitors information that adjustments in actual time.
Taken collectively, Pepper Bio describes itself as a “Waze for drug discovery” as a result of its growing computational platform is able to extracting these layers of data from experimental information.
“The idea behind having global causal and functional data and analysis is that we’re much more equipped to handle very complex diseases,” says Jon Hu, CEO and co-founder of Pepper Bio.
Representatives of Pepper Bio wouldn’t reveal the whole quantity of funding the corporate has garnered to date. The firm has already raised a pre-seed spherical and is at present elevating a seed spherical. The firm is backed by NFX, additionally an investor in Mammoth Biosciences.
So far, the corporate has 4 staff.
Pepper Bio’s founders have formed Pepper Bio round their very own brushes with illness. Hu has struggled with persistent migraines and has managed to efficiently management the situation. However, when his grandmother was identified with Alzheimer’s (a situation with just one highly controversial treatment option), he discovered himself at a loss.
Strasser skilled the identical feeling when her father was identified with dementia. Doctors might observe the illness’s development, however not halt it.
“That was the first step — just feeling how much your world stops when that happens,” Strasser says.
Pepper Bio’s reply to the drug discovery downside seems to be accumulating (and analyzing) organic information. But the true value-add of Pepper Bio, per Strasser, is the addition of the transcriptomics and phosphoproteomics parts.
“We bring in information on modified proteins. This is what gives Pepper’s technology the ability to look at this data and have a functional understanding of what’s happening within drug discovery,” says Strasser.
So far, there are some common analysis papers suggesting this strategy can be utilized to discover therapeutic targets. One of Strasser’s 2019 papers in Integrative Biology particularly utilized the method of phosphoproteomic evaluation to two mouse fashions of inflammatory bowel illness.
Specifically, the approach recognized one kinase that was activated throughout the mouse fashions. In a follow-up experiment, animals with colitis (an infected colon), have been handled with an oral drug that appeared to block exercise in the recognized pathway. In essence, the paper was a proof of idea that phosphoproteomics can determine related targets for preclinical research.
Going ahead, Pepper Bio nonetheless wants to exhibit that it could use its strategy to yield new potential drug targets. So far, the corporate has two partnerships, says Hu. One is with a medical stage “central nervous system company” in which Pepper Bio helps profile a possible drug and illuminate how the drug really works. Pepper Bio is at present writing a paper manuscript with this firm.
The firm can be working alongside an oncology lab at Stanford run by Dean Flesher, the director of translational and utilized drugs at Stanford University School of Medicine. The firm goals to create an information set on stable tumors, develop a medical prediction algorithm and determine novel targets for therapies, in accordance to Hu.
From the enterprise perspective, the corporate doesn’t have goals on merely being a drug discovery platform for others to use. As Hu notes, they’d like to keep the choice of growing their very own medical pipeline of situations — although Hu says this would possibly come “three or four years” down the road.
For proper now, the corporate will measure success in phrases of how effectively it could construct out its personal databases (to embody extra info on proteins, transcriptomes or phosphorylation), and by pursuing extra partnerships with analysis establishments or drug makers.